Homelessness in the Bay Area: Mapping Causes and Solutions (3/8/18 Circle)

ACTION LIST: Circle of Light Gathering, March 8, 2018

Homelessness in the Bay Area: Mapping Causes and Solutions

  1. When you see someone homeless on the street, say hello, offer dignity and respect
  2. Think about what we can do to help and have conversations with others (friends, colleagues, your child’s school, personal interest groups); what are our responsibilities as community members? What superpowers can you leverage to help solve this problem?
  3. Help our homeless neighbors access services by dialing 311
  4. Get involved in non-profits – donate time, money, leverage your expertise on boards, Party on Garth! (numerous upcoming fundraisers and events highlighted below)
  5. When the city needs to build new shelters, challenge yourself to welcome shelters or low-income housing in your neighborhood
  6. Attend Mayoral Debates! Demand thoughtful discussion around homelessness!
  7. Take action to help homeless veterans: va.gov/homeless
  8. Ask your members of Congress to help victims of child abuse and domestic violence
  9. Call/email your representatives at all levels (local, state and federal) and demand solutions for our homeless neighbors
  10. Attend an uplifting Sunday celebration service at Glide – 9 a.m. and 11 a.m. weekly
  11. For the holidays, team with your own family/friends or work colleagues to Adopt-a-family through Compass Family Services
  12. Engage with Project Homeless Connect’s “Community Day of Service”, March 21st


San Francisco Department of Homeless and Supportive Housing


Homeless Prenatal Program



Hospitality House

  • Donate to Hospitality House / Ask your friends to donate / Be a monthly sustaining donor – as little as $10/month!
  • Volunteer at Hospitality House – at the Community Arts Program, at the Employment Program, at the Community Building Program
  • Help job seekers with resumes and cover letters; assist job seekers with computer skills
  • Come to the Hospitality House Annual Art Auction,Thursday May 17, Minnesota Street Project – bring a friend, volunteer at event, hospitalityhouse.org/annual-art-auction
  • Donate interview clothing, art supplies, books for our free lending library, hygiene kits, feminine hygiene products; underwear, socks, t-shirts, gloves, etc.
  • Host a house meeting with your friends and neighbors – raise awareness and raise money for Hospitality House!
  • Talk to your co-workers about Hospitality House – organize a tour, come see us!
  • For more information about getting involved with Hospitality House, contact Tess at 415-749-2118


Miracle Messages reconnects people living on the streets with their loved ones (and us), through short video messages and social media. To date, 33% of reunions have led to stable housing. Miracle Messages has been featured in the New York Times, NPR, and NowThis, whose video reached 25M views and 360K shares. Founder Kevin F. Adler started Miracle Messages in honor of his Uncle Mark, who lived on-and-off the streets for 30 years. Our goal is to reunite 1 million people by 2021. Since Miracle Messages is almost entirely volunteer operated, here are our top 5 ways to get involved:

1) Join our facebook group and help us search for loved ones online.

Miracle Messages has a closed facebook group where our cases are posted, and anyone who wants to help find leads can do so. Just look at the cases that are posted, see if you can find a point of contact for the loved one we are trying to reach, and post it as a comment. Go to https://www.facebook.com/groups/miraclemsg/ and request to join.

2) Become a virtual case lead.

If you are able to spare 2 hours per week (at your convenience, and from your computer) you can be a virtual case lead! This involves working for our 1-800-MISS-YOU hotline, making calls/sending messages to loved ones, and updating case documentation in our case management system. Email jess@miraclemessages.org or visit http://miraclemessages.org/getinvolved/.

3) Join us for a neighborhood dinner.

On March 12th, Miracle Messages is kicking off an event called “The Neighborhood”. The concept behind the dinners is simple–we want housed people to sit across the table from people experiencing homelessness, enjoy a meal, and simply relate as people. We want to bring people together in a way that avoids the traditional service dynamics (serving vs. served, housed vs. unhoused) and instead focuses on the things that make us human–our interests, our love of good food and conversation, and the people and things we care about. To sign up for an upcoming dinner, email jess@miraclemessages.org.

4) Spread the word. 

If you want to help us get the word out about Miracle Messages, consider making our phone number available at your business, or just distributing cards with our phone number. We are happy to provide printed cards, flyers, and window decals for this. If you work or volunteer with a local organization that serves people experiencing homelessness, and you would like to make Miracle Messages available to the people you serve, email jess@miraclemessages.org.

5) Share your talents.

As a largely volunteer-run organization, we leverage the talented people in our community to fill a variety of organizational needs. If you want to share your talents/skills to help us grow, please email jess@miraclemessages.org or visit http://miraclemessages.org/getinvolved/.





  1. Back on My Feet, https://www.backonmyfeet.org/getinvolvednational, recruits members at homeless and residential facilities around the country and begins with a commitment to run three days a week in the early morning. After 30 days in the program, members with 90% attendance earn the opportunity to move into the second phase of the program called Next Steps, which provides educational support, job training programs, employment partnership referrals and housing resources. Over 80% of individuals who start our program move into the Next Steps phase. In Next Steps, members work with BoMF program staff to develop a personal road map to independence. Each member attends financial literacy classes and job skills training provided through partnerships with our corporate partners. Members can earn financial assistance to remove barriers to employment and housing such as work supplies, transportation and security deposits. Members who achieve employment and housing become Alumni Members. Within six months of becoming a Back on My Feet Alumnus, 90% of members maintain their employment, 60% receive a wage increase and 20% achieve a promotion.


  1. Compass Family Services helps San Francisco families who are homeless by providing help with shelter, long-term housing, childcare, therapy, educational and job assistance. Compass has been service innovators for more than 100 years, and more than 90% of the families we house achieve lasting success. For ways to get involved, you can find more information on our volunteer events page here: https://www.compass-sf.org/volunteer-eventsJoin the Compass Spring Benefit, March 28th, The Bently Reserve, https://www.compass-sf.org/springbenefit


  1. GLIDE Volunteer Opportunities:

Our Community Engagement and Volunteer Program connects humanity through service and offers opportunities for people to get involved.

Daily Free Meals Program, https://www.glide.org/serveameal

We rely on 85-100 volunteers every day to h elp us provide 3 nutritious meals a day, 364

days a year.  SIGN UP ONLINE TO SERVE MEALS AT glide.volunteerhub.com

Meal Shifts:


7:00-9:00 am—Breakfast

9:00-11:30 am—Prep

11:00 am-2:00 pm—Lunch

3:00-5:30 pm—Dinner


7:00-9:00 am—Breakfast

7:00-9:00 am—Prep

9:00-11:00 am—Bag Lunch

9:30-11:30 am—Prep

11:30 am-2:00 pm—Lunch

Long-term Opportunities, https://www.glide.org/LongTermVolunteer

Become a volunteer in one of GLIDE’s many programs! Work with children, get involved in the HIV/Hep C Harm Reduction Services center, assist at Sunday Celebrations, help the Fund Development office, and more. Committing to volunteer once a week for at least 6 months is required. To learn more, please visit glide.org/longtermvolunteer

Toy/Care Item Drive

Gather a group of friends or colleagues and help GLIDE collect hygiene items to hand

out in our Walk-In Center, children’s toys for our holiday toy giveaway and other items

as needed.

Service Learning

Bringing your classroom or youth group to GLIDE? Contact Lauren for more information on our service learning curriculum, which enriches the volunteer experience and helps students better understand issues such as community, diversity, poverty and empathy.

Holiday and Event Volunteers, https://www.glide.org/Volunteer-Holidays-2016

Sign up to be notified of special event volunteer opportunities. GLIDE holds spectacular

events throughout the year and especially during the holiday season! Email volteam@glide.org to join.

CONTACT:  Amar Al Hosani, tel. 415-674-6192, aalhosani@glide.org


  1. Lava Mae, https://lavamae.org/san-francisco/, has served 10,000+ guests who have taken 35,000+ showers on our mobile units across Los Angeles and the Bay Area, and innovated one-stop Pop-Up Care Villages to dramatically expand access to essential services for people living on the streets. They have inspired dozens of new mobile hygiene programs across the U.S. and around the world, and recently launched the first-ever open sourcetoolkit + platform to help people everywhere replicate our mobile hygiene service in their own communities.

Volunteer: both individuals and groups, sign up at volunteer@lavamae.org.

Give essentials: Personal hygiene items, undergarments, socks and clothing are vital. http://gooddler.com/Wishlist/10162

Donate: Contributions of any size make it possible to serve more people in need. https://lavamae.org/donate/


  1. Support the Make Them Visible Foundation, http://makethemvisible.com/, to raise investments and awareness to humanize the homeless. MTVF address the need for a collaborative movement where non-profits work together to secure funds and harness change.


  1. At aProject Homeless Connect “Community Day of Service”, an individual experiencing homelessness or at risk of becoming homeless is able to receive assistance from more than 100 providers under the same roof in a “expo style” model. Many of the services provided could not otherwise be accessed by a person experiencing homelessness. Our next event will be March 21st, and we expect between 1,000 and 1,500 Participants to come to receive care. We have a variety of volunteer needs at our events. From Participant Escort to check in and check out, you will be a vital part of serving over a thousand individuals experiencing homelessness in one day!


  1. Simply the Basics focuses on improving physical health and dignity in the community, as well as saving nonprofits time and resources. Operating as a Hygiene Bank, we have seen a decrease in infection rates and an improvement in nonprofit partners ability to reach greater goals and achieve their Missions. To best support, you can sign up to Host a Hygiene Drive or to volunteer as a group to pack and sort through products. Learn more atsimplythebasics.org.


  1. Join StreetHearts, http://www.streethearts.us/volunteer, to help end child homelessness, one heart at a time. 1 in 30 childrenin the United States is homeless. StreetHearts is raising awareness of this critical and largely invisible issue — by placing hearts in public spaces, and making it easy for anyone to take direct action. You can knit hearts and hang them  somewhere with heavy foot traffic & high visibility — or in a somewhat hidden spot to surprise peeps! Think: raising awareness//biggest impact.

StreetHearts also supports and encourages you to:

  1. Make art with kids living in homeless shelters to support safe expression and creativity. http://www.drawbridge.org/volunteer/#volunteer
  2. Play with toddlers. Tutor a child. Make a shelter brighter. Make a holiday special. https://hamiltonfamilies.org/get-involved/volunteer-opportunities/
  3. Prepare bags of food and clothing for homeless youth. Help in the office. Hike for a good cause. https://atthecrossroads.org/getinvolved.html




Children’s books: 

Counting on Community by Innosanto Nagara

Maddis’ Fridge by Lois Brandt

You and Me and Home Sweet Home by George Ella Lyon

Last Stop on Market Street by Matt de la Pena

The Exact Location of Home by Kate Messner (juvenile fiction, grades 5-7)

More books: http://www.doinggoodtogether.org/bhf-book-lists/picture-books-hunger-poverty-homelessness

Helping Children Respond to Homelessness: http://us.thinkt3.com/blog/helping-children-respond-to-homelessness?platform=hootsuite



Homeless Podcast. https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/homeless-podcast/id1263342600?mt=2

Roofless Podcast. https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/roofless-podcast/id1262928181?mt=2

Homeless from Rumble Strip. https://itunes.apple.com/WebObjects/MZStore.woa/wa/viewPodcast?id=664663777&i=1000347385861

‘DJ’s Homeless Mommy’ | Modern Love 46. https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/modern-love/id1065559535?mt=2&i=1000378444389

Two Types of Homeless from The Bay. https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/the-bay/id1350043452?mt=2&i=1000403985520

Homelessness from It Matters SF. https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/it-matters-sf/id1273634276?mt=2&i=1000391266385

Homelessness from Prickly Politics. https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/prickly-politics/id1257234651?mt=2&i=1000393221640


Audio/visual stories and interviews:

Tender Souls:  Short documentary about three Tenderloin residents that live vastly different lives in the same square mile and yet share a common history of pain and struggle

https://www.tendersoulsfilm.com/ (23 minutes)

Make Them Visible (3.5 minutes)


NPR Here & Now: Giving The Homeless A Camera To Tell Their Stories (6 minutes)


What is the Homeless Prenatal Program? (2.5 minutes)


Martha Ryan shares the genesis of HPP (10 minutes)


Miracle Messages Video Stories


Hospitality House: The Oral NowStories Project (12 minutes)


Kevin Adler’s “Don’t be a stranger” TED Talk (7 minutes)



Guess what?  We DO have a federal level council on homelessness!



Upcoming Local Discussions

Thursday, March 29th, 6:15 – 8:30 p.m.

San Francisco Mayoral Debate

Location: Minnesota Street Project, 1275 Minnesota Street

Eastern Neighborhoods Democratic Club (ENDC), The Bay City Beacon, Edwin M. Lee Asian Pacific Democratic Club, and Willie B. Kennedy Democratic Club cordially invite members and SF residents to a debate with the candidates of the June 5th SF mayoral special election. Candidates Angela Alioto, London Breed, Mark Leno, and Amy Farah Weiss will all be participating.

Doors open at 6:15pm and the debate will start at 7pm. Attendees are encouraged to come before 7pm to check in and find a seat. Each attendee will need an Eventbrite ticket to enter.





  1. @Homelessashes #featurefilm is complete! The filmmakers need support to finish the film, do you want become a voice for homelessness? please donate or share to our #crowdfund @indiegogo. https://www.com/projects/homeless-ashes-feature-film-drama/x/5112537#/ … Trailer contains disturbing images, View discretion is advised: https://www.indiegogo.com/projects/homeless-ashes-feature-film-drama#/


  1. A Meal With Dignity

There is a Humanitarian Crisis of Homelessness in San Francisco. In response, we have started a California nonprofit to feed the unsheltered homeless on the streets of San Francisco. We call it A Meal With Dignity (AMWD). Our Vision is to foster community, lift the soul, and nourish the spirits of those in need, as well as our friends, neighbors and families. We believe fresh, in season, organic food is medicine that can heal people’s spirits and souls. And, in doing so, raise each other up by serving our unsheltered homeless community with dignity.

Periodically, a small group of A Meal With Dignity volunteers mobilize to make 100 healthy organic boxed lunches in a home kitchen and deliver them immediately and directly to poor and suffering individuals living on the streets of San Francisco.  We use our own vehicles to deliver the meals. Our freshly prepared boxed lunch consists of an avocado and tomato sandwich on a Brioche bun, San Simeon cheese and gem lettuce, dressed with a citrus vinaigrette made with Sevillano Fall EVO and fresh herbs. That, plus a seasonal piece of organic fruit, a fresh pastry and a bottle of spring water, provide a nutritionally complete Meal With Dignity. Our food ingredients and packaging supplies are sourced at discounted wholesale prices from our supporting vendors: Ergo Packaging, Earl’s Organics, Rainbow Grocery, Bakers of Paris, Cassein Cheese, and Bi-Rite Market.

DONATE: A boxed lunch for a homeless person costs us about $5 each.


Contact Volunteer Coordinator Erika Aguirre Amealwithdignityvolunteers@gmail.com

Click to sign up on our Doodle Volunteer Schedule https://doodle.com/poll/p63k9apeub8xx9u4

Follow us on Facebook https://www.facebook.com/amealwithdignity/

Joy D’Ovidio, Executive Director, 415.305.5655, joydovidio@comcast.net


  1. HELP US END FAMILY HOMELESSNESS: Give Now to Compass Family Services
    (Your donation today will be matched dollar-for-dollar by Google.org!)



  1. BrightVibes: Clean Slate: One Texas City is Paying Its Homeless to Pick Up Trash

Clean Slate is a social enterprise initiative designed to erase the barriers that keep many homeless people from working and contributing to the community. The goal is to break the cycle of homelessness by providing steady employment that restores dignity and provides hope. Almost four thousand tons of litter was collected from the streets of Fort Worth by Clean Slate workers last year.



  1. CBS News: Act of kindness leads to a family reunion six decades overdue

Our ongoing series, A More Perfect Union, aims to show that what unites us as Americans is far greater than what divides us. In this installment, an unlikely path toward finding family. A homeless man panhandling at a transit station in the Bay Area discovered a new life thanks to the kindness of some people who gave him a chance.



Print/online articles (homework sent prior to gathering):

San Francisco Department of Homelessness and Supportive Housing’s Strategic Framework




SF Chronicle: For mentally ill homeless patients, new center offers 54 beds and a dose of hope


Outside: Can a Running Club Help Fight Homelessness?


t3 Threads: Changing the Conversation: Helping Children Respond to Homelessness


SF Gate: Candidates for SF mayor try to stake their ground at forum


Once homeless, Joe Wilson now runs a source of hope for the most desperate


SF Chronicle: Homelessness doesn’t have to be the end of the journey (Op Ed by Joe Wilson)


SFGate: S.F. photo exhibit of women who found self-worth


HPP: Janet Delaney- Nine Women: Nine Stories


HH: Everyday Heroes: Participant Profiles


NYTimes: A Video Project Reconnects Homeless People With Families


Mother Jones: Meet the Man Who’s Making Tech Do Something About San Francisco’s Massive Wealth Gap


SF Chronicle: Nonprofit pledges $100 million to aid SF’s chronically homeless


Psychology Today: Person or Object? The Case of Homelessness



Street Sheet: Charlene: I slept and showered at Facebook. I was homeless. And pregnant.


Fast Company: Experience How Expensive It Feels to Live Below the Poverty Line


Recode: Tech companies have an obligation to join the fight against poverty, says Tipping Point CEO Daniel Lurie


Recode: Why Silicon Valley’s Wealthy Techies Need to ‘Stand Up’ to Homelessness Now https://www.recode.net/2017/3/27/15068606/daniel-lurie-tipping-point-community-homelessness-inequality-san-francisco-recode-podcast

NYTimes: A ‘Bright Light,’ Dimmed in the Shadows of Homelessness


Recode: Why aren’t we harnessing technology to end homelessness?


East Bay Times: Richmond: A new approach to eradicating poverty


Creativity Online:  Would you recognize your sister if she were homeless?


High Country News: A Tale of Two Housing Crises, Rural and Urban


The Urbanist: Homelessness in the Bay Area


Wired: A Bid to Solve California’s Housing Crisis Could Redraw How Cities Grow


The Bold Italic: Why San Francisco‘s Homelessness Problem Is Still Complicated


SF Chronicle: Despite money and effort, homelessness in SF as bad as ever


SFGate: SF’s new count shows homeless people spreading into neighborhoods


Curbed: UN expert decries homeless conditions in Bay Area as ‘cruel,’ ‘unacceptable’


Mission Local: Navigation Center for the Homeless Switches Focus from Housing to Triage


KQED: The Rough Stories Behind the Tender Souls



Activist Put Up Hearts All Over San Francisco


Business Insider: Lava Mae is turning old buses into bathrooms and showers for San Francisco’s homeless


Medium (press release): Tipping Point Steps up with $100 Million Initiative to Reduce Chronic Homelessness by Half



Circle of Light Gathering, March 8, 2018

Bay Area Homelessness Expert Panel


JESS DOING, http://miraclemessages.org

Jess Donig is the Director of Operations for Miracle Messages. She joined Kevin Adler, Miracle Messages’ Founder and CEO, as the first full-time team member in 2017, driven by her passion for improving people’s lives through innovation.   Prior to joining Miracle Messages, Jess served as the first employee and VP of Operations for the YC backed med-tech startup Call9, where she built the infrastructure to provide emergency medicine and palliative care medicine to nursing home patients via telemedicine. She has also worked in clinical research at Stanford University, where she ran the clinical wing of the Daldrup-Link Pediatric Imaging Laboratory, and as the Director of Academic Programs for the East Palo Alto Boys and Girls Club.

In addition to her social impact and operational work, Jess has co-authored six publications on the use of iron-oxide nanoparticles as an MR imaging agent. She is also an artist and illustrator, with work published in the journal Radiology and paintings on display at Stanford and Oakland Children’s Hospitals. Jess received her BA in Sociology from UCLA in 2008, where she participated in the sociology honors thesis program and completed an ethnographic research project. Her interest in working on the issue of homelessness was sparked in her first year at UCLA, when one of her sociology professors remarked that, in the 1960’s, homelessness in the Bay Area was practically nonexistent. It was this remark that got Jess thinking about the normalization of homelessness, and the importance of understanding homelessness as a human experience.


CARRIE HAMILTON, http://www.homelessprenatal.org

Carrie Hamilton is a graduate of the Homeless Prenatal Program’s Community Health Worker Training Program (2008). Since then Carrie has worked as a Case Manager at the agency as a member of the New Beginnings program, which serves expecting women with high-risk pregnancies. As a part of her role, Carrie provides street outreach to better engage homeless, and acts as the liaison between the city homeless medical teams as well as area hospitals.

As a former HPP client, Hamilton has been a powerful role model, influencing the lives of many wellness and substance use disorders and mental health challenges. Hamilton holds a certificate from the Community Health Worker Training Program at City College of San Francisco and is currently working on her Drug and Alcohol Certification (May 2019).


DANIEL LURIE, https://tippingpoint.org

Before founding Tipping Point in 2005, Daniel worked for the Bill Bradley Presidential Campaign and the Robin Hood Foundation in New York City. Daniel’s fourth day at Robin Hood was September 11th, 2001. Over the course of the next two years, he witnessed the organization’s ability to lift up the city through its focused philanthropic work. In 2003, Daniel returned to the San Francisco Bay Area to complete graduate school. While there, he worked to adapt Robin Hood’s model to fit his home region and Tipping Point Community was born.

Daniel has earned a BA in Political Science from Duke University and received his Master’s in Public Policy from the Goldman School at UC Berkeley. Daniel serves on the Board of Directors for the Mimi and Peter Haas Fund, and the Levi Strauss Foundation and was Chair of the Super Bowl 50 Host Committee in 2016, which raised $13 million for community efforts, the largest contribution in Super Bowl history. When not fighting poverty, you can find Daniel on the hunt for the Bay Area’s best burrito or spending time with his family.


MARTHA RYAN, http://www.homelessprenatal.org

Martha Ryan’s journey to creating the Homeless Prenatal Program (HPP) began in Africa.  After a 10-year stint as an ICU nurse at San Francisco General Hospital, Ryan returned to Africa, where she had been a teacher for the Peace Corps years before.  In Somalia and the Sudan, Ryan worked in refugee camps where she created a Community Health Outreach Program, a program she would later replicate at HPP. In 1989, Ryan founded HPP to provide free prenatal care to at-risk pregnant women. In that first year, HPP provided prenatal care to 72 women.  Twenty-nine years later, HPP has a staff of 80 (half former clients) that serves 4,000 families annually.

Ryan holds an M.P.H., Maternal and Child Health, from the University of California, Berkeley and a B.A. in Modern Languages from the University of San Francisco.  She has received numerous honors for her work including an honorary doctorate from University of San Francisco, a CNN Hero Award, a James Irvine Foundation Leadership Award, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation’s Community Health Leadership Award and the San Francisco Foundation’s Community Leadership Award.


ABIGAIL STEWART-KAHNhttp://hsh.sfgov.org

Abigail is currently the Director of Strategic Initiatives for the Department of Homelessness and Supportive Housing and a Tipping Point Community Fellow.  In this capacity she is responsible for the strategy, implementation and change management across the homelessness response system.  Abigail also takes up specific strategic initiatives including philanthropic engagement, partnerships and new program development and initiatives.  Abigail has unwavering commitment to creating change with and on behalf of vulnerable communities and individuals through clinical intervention and systems and advocacy work.  Abigail has expertise in working from vision setting through implementation, consensus building and partnership, collective impact work across sectors and organizational change management.  Abigail is a passionate leader and clinical social worker with over 15 years of experience in management, strategy, fundraising, program development, operations and direct service.


JOE WILSON, http://hospitalityhouse.org

Joe Wilson was recently named Executive Director of Hospitality House. Joe was previously the Director of Community Initiatives at Hospitality House, and he has an extensive and deep history with the organization. He began his time with the House as a shelter resident in 1983 after finding himself homeless in San Francisco, and his career started here. He was a volunteer and soon after became the shelter manager. Joe was one of the founding members of the Coalition on Homelessness in 1987, and in 1989, he and three other advocates published a policy paper on transitional housing that led to the creation of the Community Housing Partnership. For the next 20 years, Joe continued to gain experience and knowledge working in various leadership roles at other nonprofits and labor unions, and led policy reform, community organizing, and budget advocacy campaigns. In 2012, Joe came back to Hospitality House and has been leading our community building and policy advocacy work for the past five years.

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s